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ALD Technology

Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), used to deposit films on a monolayer scale, has become widely adopted in R&D and various industries.

The ALD mechanism proceeds by a limited surface chemical reaction, and thus ALD processes offer superior deposition uniformity and conformality over varied substrate sizes and shapes.

ALD process cycle

ALD is a time-multiplexed process comprising of cycles with 4 steps in a cycle.

After completion, the ALD cycle is started again, producing layer-by-layer growth.

Precursor exposure

During step 1 of the cycle, reactive species are introduced in the reactor and chemisorbed on the wafer surface.


In process step 2, purging of the reactor is required to remove all traces of the reactant.

Reactant exposure

The second reactant is introduced into the reactor in step 3. The reactant molecules can react with the adsorbate violently upon plasma excitation (plasma enhanced ALD, or PEALD). Due to the self-limiting process, and with the proper choice of reactants and process conditions, only a thin layer, close to a monolayer in thickness, is formed during the chemical reaction.

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